Medical Instrumentation



Teaching Scheme                                                                    Examination Scheme

Lecturers: 3 Hrs / Week                                                             Mid- Sem Test– 30 marks,

                                                                                                                                   Assignments and Quizzes- 20 marks,

                                                                                                                                  End Sem  Exam - 50 marks


After completing this course students should be able:

  1. To understand the principle, working of various medical instruments
  2. To understand the design aspects of various biomedical instruments



Unit 1

Biopotential Measurement

Cell Structure, Basic Cell functions, Origins of bio-potentials, electrical activity of cells, biological Control Concept, Electrode-electrolyte interface, Half cell Potential, Polarisable and nonpolarisable electrode, Electrode circuit model, Body surface recording electrodes for ECG, EMG and EEG, internal electrodes-needle and wire electrodes, electrodes for electric stimulation of tissue, Various biomedical transducers                               [6 Hrs]


Unit 2

Central Nervous systems - Receptors, sensory pathways and motor systems, processing sensory information, neural, neuromuscular, sensory muscular and sensory measurements, biofeedback, evoked response, electroencephalography (EEG), EEG amplifier 

Classification of muscles – Muscle contraction mechanism, Myoelectric voltages, Electromyography (EMG)                                                                                    [8 Hrs]


Unit 3

Cardio-vascular system - structure of heart, rhythmicity, pacemaker cell, ECG theory, ECG electrodes, Electrocardiograph, vector cardiograph          

Bio-signal  amplifiers and signal processing, basic requirement, Op-amp circuit, transient protection, interference reduction circuits, active filters, rate measurement, averaging and integrator circuits, Examples of physiological signals and systems including feedback systems                                                                                                         [8 Hrs]



Unit 4

Cardiovascular Measurements and therapeutic devices

Heart sound, Phonocardiography, Blood pressure measurement (invasive and noninvasive), Blood flow meter- Magnetic and ultrasound, Cardiac Output measurement, Plethysmography,

Life saving devices pacemakers and defibrillators, heart lung machine 

                                 [7 Hrs]


Unit 5

Special Senses-

Ear: Mechanism of hearing, Sound conduction system, Basic Audiometer, Pure tone audiometer, Audiometer system Bekesey, Evoked response Audiometer system,           Hearing aids

Vision- Anatomy of Eye, Visual acuity, Slit Lamp, Tonometer, Ophthalmoscope, Perimeter, LASER Applications in Ophthalmology – Diabetic Retinopathy, Glaucoma and retinal hole and detachment treatment                                                                      [8 Hrs]


Unit 6

Biomaterials- Structure and property relationships in materials, ceramics and polymers, Interactions of materials with the human body, composite materials concepts and applications, Implementation problems – inflammation, rejection, corrosion, structural failure                                                                                                                              [8 Hrs]                                               


Text Books

  • Biomedical Instrumentation by Dr. M. Arumugam, Anuradha Publishers, 1992
  • Introduction to Biomedical Equipment Technology by Carr and Brown
  • Medical Instrumentation Application and Design by John G. Webster, John Wiley     & Sons Pvt. Ltd
  • Biomedical  Instrumentation and  Measurements by Leslie Cromwell, Fred J. Weibell, Erich A. Pfeiffer, Pearson Education
  • Principles of Biomedical Instrumentation and Measurement by Richard Aston, Maxwell Macmillan International Edition
  • Handbook of Biomedical Instrumentation by R. S. Khandpur, TMH
  • Medicine and Clinical Engineering by Jacobsons and Webster, PHI


Reference Books

  • Human Physiology – The Mechanism of Body Functions by Vander, Shermen, TMH
  • Biomedical Digital Signal Processing by Tompkins
  • Encyclopedia of Medical Devices and Instruments by Webster Vol. I - IV